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The information below is intended for patients considering surgical treatment of the voice. The guidelines given here may vary from surgeon to surgeon, hospital to hospital, and region to region. These guidelines are intended to help you better understand the procedure.

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During a direct laryngoscopy, the vocal cords are viewed with a microscope, sometimes in combination with an endoscope, to properly visualize and remove lesions. The procedure is performed using a CO2 laser and micro-instruments. This procedure is performed under general anesthesia and in day hospitalization.



Medialization is a surgical procedure to add mass to one or both vocal cords to improve vocal cord closure during speech.

This procedure is performed under sedation (light anesthesia, without intubation) and requires one night of hospitalization.

The procedure is also called "thyroplasty Isshiki type I" after Dr. Isshiki who invented and first performed this procedure.


Injection is the injection of material into the vocal cords to increase the mass and thus achieve a better closure of the vocal cords. This material is Hyaluronate (Healon or Iuvederm) or Hydroxia-apatite (for example Rénuvoice).

An injection can be done in the operating room under general anesthesia via day hospitalization or during consultation after local anesthesia.

More info:RW BASTIAN, KG DELSUPEHE. Indirect Larynx and Pharynx Surgery : A replacement for direct laryngoscopy. Laryngoscope 1996;106:1280-86


These interventions are mainly performed in transgender patients if insufficient increase in voice can be obtained after intensive speech therapy. There are various possible techniques for this, in which we prefer the Wendler glottoplasty technique because it is the least invasive technique. Here, the vibrating part of the vocal cords is shortened by forming a web at the front of the voice gap, which increases the pitch. This procedure is done under general anesthesia via day hospitalisation.

More info: Pitch Elevation in Trangendered Patients: Anterior Glottic Web Formation Assisted by Temporary Injection Augmentation

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